Asbestos Facts

Asbestos is a naturally-occurring mineral found in certain types of rock formations. When mined and processed, it takes the form of very small fibers which are usually invisible to the naked eye. These individual fibers are generally mixed with a material which binds them together so that they can be used in many different products. Asbestos became a popular commercial product because it is strong, won’t burn, resists corrosion, and insulates well. It is most commonly used as insulation and in building materials. It has been used in floor and ceiling tile, cement asbestos pipe, corrugated paper pipe wrap, acoustical and decorative insulation, pipe and boiler insulation, and spray-applied fireproofing. The fluffy white substance you may find on steel structures above a dropped ceiling, for example, is one type of spray-applied material. The amount of asbestos in products varies widely, from less than 1 to 100 percent, depending on the use. Positive identification of asbestos in a product can only be made when samples are taken by a properly trained and licensed asbestos professional (inspector). The precise amount of asbestos can only be determined from analysis of samples by an accredited laboratory. However, EPA only recommends testing suspect materials if they are damaged (fraying, crumbling) or if you are planning a renovation that would disturb the suspect material.

Although the manufacture, importation, processing, or distribution in commerce for most asbestos-containing products was banned in the US in 1989, the rule was overturned by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in 1991.

Asbestos fibers can cause serious health problems. If inhaled, they can disrupt the normal functioning of the lungs. Three specific diseases – asbestosis, lung cancer, and another cancer known as mesothelioma have been linked to asbestos exposure. These diseases do not develop immediately after inhalation of asbestos fibers; it may be 20 years or more before symptoms appear. In general, as with cigarette smoking, the more asbestos fibers a person inhales, the greater the risk of developing an asbestos-related disease. The most severe health problems from asbestos exposure have been experienced by some workers who held jobs in industries such as shipbuilding, where they were exposed to very high levels of asbestos in the air. These employees worked directly with asbestos materials on a regular basis as a part of their jobs. Much uncertainty surrounds the risk from exposure to low levels of asbestos fibers.

When Is Asbestos a Problem?

Intact and undisturbed asbestos materials generally do not pose a health risk. Asbestos materials, however, can become hazardous when, due to damage or deterioration over time, they release fibers. If the fibers are inhaled, they can lead to health problems. The potential for an asbestos containing material to release fibers depends primarily on its condition. If the material, when dry, can be crumbled by hand pressure – a condition known as “friable” – it is more likely to release fibers, particularly when damaged.

What Are the Proper Methods for Managing Asbestos?

Most asbestos-containing material can be properly managed where it is. In fact, asbestos that is managed properly and maintained in good condition appears to pose relatively little risk to building occupants and employees. Proper asbestos management begins with a comprehensive inspection by qualified, trained and experienced inspectors, licensed by New York State. Inspecting the condition of asbestos materials is extremely important so that changes in the material’s condition, such as damage or deterioration, can be detected and corrected before the condition worsens. Sometimes normal school or maintenance activities can damage asbestos material and cause fiber release, particularly if the material is “friable.” A thorough initial inspection and regular surveillance can prevent accidental exposure to high levels of asbestos fibers.

Proper methods for dealing with material that has become damaged are:

  • Developing and carrying out a special maintenance plan to insure that asbestos containing materials are kept in good condition. This is the most common method when the materials are in good condition at the time of initial inspection.
  • Spraying the material with a sealant to prevent fiber release – a process called encapsulation.
  • Removing asbestos – generally necessary only when the material damage is extensive and severe, and other actions will not control fiber release.

Encapsulation and removal must be done by NYS licensed asbestos professionals. The decision to remove asbestos containing material on campus is made after careful consideration of all possible outcomes. An ill-conceived or poorly conducted removal has the potential to create a greater health risk than leaving it undisturbed. Consequently, all school removal projects are designed, supervised, and conducted by licensed professionals and are performed in accordance with state-of-the-art procedures. In addition, an experienced and qualified, third-party project monitor is hired to oversee the asbestos contractor’s work to make sure the removal is conducted safely.

Asbestos Abatement Projects

Asbestos abatement is conducted when asbestos containing materials are damaged or anytime work is planned in areas where asbestos is present and may be disturbed by the work.  When abatement is necessary, the campus hires a contractor to remove the material.  We are also required to hire a separate contractor to conduct air monitoring both inside the abatement area and immediately outside the abatement area.  This contractor is also responsible for managing the project.  In advance of the abatement, and only after project approval, New York State regulations require posting of notices on building entrances.

How Can I Protect Myself?

As a parent, teacher, student, service worker or other school employee, the most important thing you can do first is to learn about your school’s asbestos activities. As you do so, remember that the mere presence of asbestos in a school doesn’t necessarily mean that the health of its occupants is endangered. Again, asbestos that is managed properly and maintained in good condition poses relatively little risk. Federal regulations do not require the removal of all friable asbestos from schools until the building is demolished. In fact, during the life of the building, other methods of dealing with the material are often preferable to removal. In those cases when removing asbestos is determined to be the appropriate decision, the work must be done under strict controls by trained, qualified and experienced asbestos professionals who are licensed by NYS.

The most important and simplest thing you can do to minimize your exposure to asbestos is to be aware of which materials contain asbestos. Once you know where asbestos is, avoid day-to-day activities that might disturb the material. If disturbed asbestos containing material is observed report the condition immediately to either the Office of Community Engagement, via RA or RC; Facilities Management; or the Environmental, Health and Safety Department so the condition can be investigated and corrective action taken.

Campus actions:

Regularly inspect the condition of asbestos-containing materials to ensure they remain intact.

Encourage students to promptly report damaged materials.

Source: EPA

Cold Stress

What is cold stress?

Anyone working in a cold environment may be at risk of cold stress.  Some workers may be required to work outdoors in cold environments and for extended periods, for example, snow cleanup crews, maintenance workers, police officers and emergency response personnel. 

A cold environment forces the body to work harder to maintain its temperature.  Whenever temperatures drop below normal and wind speed increases, heat can leave your body more rapidly.

Cold stress occurs by driving down the skin temperature and eventually the internal body temperature (core temperature).  This may lead to serious health problems, and may cause tissue damage, and possibly death.

Increased wind speed also causes heat to leave the body more rapidly, this is known as the wind chill effect.  Wind chill is the temperature your body feels when air temperature and wind speed are combined.  For example, when the air temperature is 40°F, and the wind speed is 35 mph, the effect on the exposed skin is as if the air temperature was 28°F.   Wetness or dampness, even from body sweat, also facilitates heat loss from the body.

Risk factors for cold stress include:

  • Wetness/dampness, dressing improperly, and exhaustion.
  • Predisposing health conditions such as hypertension, hypothyroidism, and diabetes.
  • Poor physical conditioning.

Types of Cold Stress

  • Frostbite
  • Hypothermia 
  • Immersion/Trench Foot 


Frostbite is caused by the freezing of the skin and tissues.  Frostbite can cause permanent damage to the body, and in severe cases can lead to amputation.  The risk of frostbite is increased in people with reduced blood circulation and among people who are not dressed properly for extremely cold temperatures. 

What are the symptoms of frostbite? 
  • At first, cold skin and a prickling feeling
  • Numbness
  • Red, white, bluish-white or grayish-yellow skin
  • Hard or waxy-looking skin
  • Clumsiness due to joint and muscle stiffness
  • In severe cases, blistering after rewarming the affected areas


Hypothermia occurs when the normal body temperature (98.6°F) drops to less than 95°F.  Exposure to cold temperatures causes the body to lose heat faster than it can be produced.  Prolonged exposure to cold will eventually use up the body’s stored energy.  The result is hypothermia, or abnormally low body temperature.  Hypothermia most likely occurs at very cold temperatures, but it can occur even at cool temperatures (above 40°F) if a person becomes chilled from rain, sweat, or immersion in cold water.   Body temperature that is too low affects the brain, making the victim unable to think clearly or move well.  This makes hypothermia particularly dangerous because a person may not know what is happening and won’t be able to do anything about it.

What are the symptoms of hypothermia? 
  • Uncontrollable shivering, which should not be ignored
  • Slurred speech or mumbling
  • Slow, shallow breathing
  • Weak pulse
  • Clumsiness or lack of coordination
  • Drowsiness or very low energy
  • Confusion or memory loss
  • Loss of consciousness and possibly death
  • Bright red, cold skin (in infants)

Immersion/Trench Foot

Trench foot is a non-freezing injury of the feet caused by prolonged exposure to wet and cold conditions.  It can occur in temperatures as high as 60°F if feet remain wet.  Injury occurs because wet feet lose heat 25-times faster than dry feet.

What are the symptoms of trench foot?

Reddening skin, tingling, pain, swelling, leg cramps, numbness, and blisters.

How can cold stress be prevented?

  • Recognize cold stress illnesses and injuries and how to prevent them. 
  • If possible, shield work areas from drafts or wind to reduce wind chill.
  • It is easy to become dehydrated in cold weather.  Drink plenty of warm sweetened liquids. 
  • If possible, schedule heavy work during the warmer part of the day.
  • Work in pairs (buddy system), to monitor each other for signs of cold stress.
  • Take a break in a warm area if you become extremely uncomfortable.
  • Stay dry in the cold because moisture or dampness, e.g. from sweating, can increase the rate of heat loss from the body.
  • Dress properly.
  • The type of fabric worn makes a difference.  Cotton loses its insulation value when it becomes wet.  Wool, silk and most synthetics, on the other hand, retain their insulation even when wet.
  • Wear at least three layers of loose fitting clothing for better insulation. 
    • An inner layer of wool, silk or synthetic to keep moisture away from the body.
    • A middle layer of wool or synthetic to provide insulation even when wet.
    • An outer wind and rain protection layer that allows some ventilation to prevent overheating.
  • Do not wear tight fitting clothing.
  • Wear a hat or hood to help keep your whole body warmer.  Hats reduce the amount of body heat that escapes from your head.
  • Use a knit mask to cover the face and mouth (if needed).
  • Use insulated gloves to protect the hands (water resistant if necessary).
  • Wear insulated and waterproof boots (or other footwear). 

Power Strip and Extension Cord Safety

A recently published National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) report shows that in the period from 2010–2014, fires involving extension cords accounted for 57% of the fires involving cords or plugs, as well as disproportionate shares of civilian deaths (70%) and injuries (69%). Extension cords were involved in an estimated average of 1,750 non-confined home fires in that period. These fires resulted in annual averages of 80 civilian deaths, 160 civilian injuries, and $79 million in direct property damage.

The purpose of this policy is to describe the permissible use of power strips and extension cords within Purchase College buildings. It applies to use of these devices on campus and is useful information for home as well.

Fused Power Strips
Fused power strips provide power to electronic equipment that is in proximity. An inline circuit breaker will interrupt the electric current in case of an overload or a short circuit. They are also known as relocatable power taps or multiple outlet strips.
Extension Cords
Extension cords are intended to provide temporary electric power from a wall mounted receptacle to the plug of an electrically-powered device. They are not meant to be a replacement for fixed wiring. While it may seem convenient to use extension cords, their use indicates that additional hard wiring may be needed. Extension cords are only for temporary use of non-fixed equipment. For example, lighting and tools used in maintenance work.
General Requirements for Power Strips and Approved Extension Cord Use

Always inspect the power cord prior to use. Do not use any device that is damaged.

  • Do not modify cords or use them incorrectly.
  • Never remove the power cord’s grounding pin in order to fit it into a two-prong outlet.
  • Never use a “cheater” or adapter to plug a grounding-type plug (three prongs) to a non-grounding receptacle(two slots).
  • Never use outlet expanders, splitters or cubes.
  • Always ensure the total powered load does not exceed the rating of the power strip.
  • Power strips must have an inline fuse.
    • Note: A surge protector device does not meet the requirements of an inline fuse.
  • Never use equipment rated for indoor use, outdoors.
  • Never plug multiple power strips together. They must be plugged directly into wall outlets.
  • Do not run electrical cords under rugs or furniture.
  • Flexible cords and cables must not create trip hazards.
  • Stop using electrical devices that feel hot to the touch, unless so designed (hair dryer, iron, etc.).
  • Throw away equipment that has damaged cords.
  • Pull the plug, not the cord, when disconnecting an electrical device from the outlet. Pulling the cord can damage the cord and plug. In addition, the plug may strike you in the eyes or face causing an injury.
  • When approved for temporary use, extension cords:
    • Must be grounded and be equipped with over-current protection.
    • Must not pass through holes in walls, ceilings, floors, or through doorways, windows or similar openings.
    • Must not be attached to building surfaces, concealed behind walls, above ceilings or under floors or floor coverings.
    • Must bear approval from Underwriters Laboratory (UL) per NYS Fire Code, 605.4.1.

Do not take shortcuts or chances with electrical safety, and never rely on unsafe practices such as unauthorized “repairs” of electrical cords. Protect yourself and others from electrical fires and electrical shock by looking after all electrical equipment, including power strips. It is worth it.

Mold Facts

Increasing public awareness regarding the health effects of mold has led to increased concern. Molds are part of the natural environment, and can be found everywhere, indoors and outdoors. In general, background mold spore levels tend to be higher in rural areas near forests and swampy areas.  There are several forested and swampy areas on campus where mold would not be uncommon.

Mold can grow on virtually any organic substance, as long as moisture and a food source is present. Mold is not usually a problem, unless it begins growing indoors. All of us are exposed to a variety of fungal spores daily in the air we breathe.

When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or unaddressed. It is impossible to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment. However, mold growth can be controlled indoors by controlling moisture indoors.

In many cases, occupant actions in response to changing weather conditions such as variations between hot and cold can provide ideal conditions for mold to grow. For example, opening windows when it is hot and not closing them when it is raining or very damp outside, will increase interior moisture.

Identifying moisture problems as soon as they become apparent and responding immediately is the best approach to prevent widespread contamination of an area. The importance of alerting the facilities management team to a problem anytime a leak or water damage is discovered cannot be overstressed. This will allow the team to respond, correct the moisture problem and begin cleaning the area. The response will begin with a thorough visual inspection. This is the most important initial step in identifying a possible mold problem and in determining remediation strategies to be followed.

Once a condition is reported, occupants must not  engage in cleaning up mold as mold and mold spores may be dispersed throughout the air where they can be inhaled by building occupants.


In almost all cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Visible mold is the best indication that a moisture problem exists.

Sampling can be considered as part of an evaluation in specific instances. The decision to conduct sampling will be made by the Environmental Health & Safety Department. In the event sampling is indicated, the strategy shall focus on collecting samples in the area of concern, in an area in the same building where there is no concern, and outside that building.

The evaluation of air-sampling results is based on the comparison of the types (similar mix expected) and levels (lower indoors expected) of fungi detected indoors versus that detected outdoors. Differences between indoor and outdoor results suggest but do not confirm that mold growth is present indoors.

Sampling should be conducted only after developing a sampling strategy that includes a provable theory regarding suspected mold sources. Inadequate sample plans may generate misleading, confusing and useless results at an unnecessary, high cost.

It is important to remember that the results of sampling may have limited use or application.  Due to each person’s response to mold exposure being unique, Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA) or Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) exposure limits for mold or mold spores currently do not exist.

Sampling for mold must be conducted by properly trained professionals who have specific experience in designing mold sampling protocols, who use established sampling methods and can provide assistance in the interpretation and application of results.

Keep in mind that air sampling for mold, when properly conducted, provides a snapshot in time and only applies to the moment when the sampling occurred. Conditions can and do change.

Mold Prevention Tips
  • Fix leaky plumbing and leaks in the building envelope as soon as possible.
  • Encourage occupants to watch for condensation and wet spots and report the condition ASAP.
  • Prevent moisture due to condensation by increasing surface temperature or reducing the moisture level in air (humidity).  To increase surface temperature, insulate or increase air circulation. To reduce the moisture level in air, repair leaks, increase ventilation (if outside air is cold and dry), or dehumidify (if outdoor air is warm and humid).
  • Ensure moisture-generating appliances, such as dryers, are vented to the outside and the vents are not obstructed.
  • Maintain low indoor humidity, below 60% relative humidity (RH), ideally 30-50%, if possible.
Remediation Basics
Non-porous materials (e.g. metals, glass, and hard plastics) can almost always be cleaned. Semi porous and porous structural materials, such as wood and concrete can be cleaned if they are structurally sound. Porous materials, such as fabric, ceiling tiles and insulation, and wallboards (with more than a small area of mold growth) should be removed and discarded. Wallboard should be cleaned or removed at least six inches beyond visually assessed mold growth (including hidden areas, see Visual Inspection) or wet or water-damaged areas.
Post Remediation
  • Ensure the water or moisture problem has been completely fixed.
  • Complete the mold removal. Use professional judgment to determine if the cleanup is sufficient. Visible mold, mold-damaged materials and moldy odors should not be present.
  • If samples were collected, the kinds and concentrations of mold spores in the building should be similar to those found outside, once cleanup activities have been completed.
  • Return to the affected area(s) shortly after remediation. There should be no signs of water damage or mold growth.