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George P. Kraemer

Professor of Environmental Studies

Research Interests

Non-native species impacts, marine intertidal ecology, aquaculture, scaling of city characteristics and function

Representative Courses

  • ENV 1500 Introduction to Environmental Science
  • ENV 2030 Computer Applications in the Sciences
  • ENV 2040 Intro to Renewable Energy
  • ENV 3250 Ecology of Urban Environments
  • ENV 4460 Marine Ecology


Kraemer, G.P. 2022. Cultural sustainability of US Cities: the scaling of non-profit arts footprint with population. Sustainability, 14, 4245.

Kraemer G.  2019.  Changes in population demography and reproductive output of the invasive Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Asian Shore Crab) in the Long Island Sound from 2005 to 2017.  Northeastern Naturalist, vol. 26, p. 81-94.

Kim, JK, Kraemer G, Yarish C.  2019.  Evaluation of the metal content of farm grown Gracilaria tikvahiae and Saccharina latissima from Long Island Sound and New York Estuaries.  Algal Research, vol. 40 p. 101484. 

Gorman, L., Kraemer G, Yarish C., Boo, S.M., Kim, J.K.  2017.  The effects of temperature on the growth rate and nitrogen content of invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla and native Gracilaria tikvahiae from Long Island Sound, USA.  Algae, vol. 32, p. 57-66.

Kraemer G, Yarish C., Kim, J.K., Zhang, H., Lin, S. 2016.  Life history interactions between the red algae Chondrus crispus (Gihartinales) and Grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniales) in a changing global environment.  Phycologia, vol 56, 176-185.

Kim, JK, Mao Y, Kraemer G, Yarish C. 2015.  Sugar kelp aquaculture in Long Island Sound and the Bronx River Estuary for nutrient bioextraction associated with biomass production.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 531, p. 155-166.

Kim, J.K., Mao, G.Y., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C. 2015. Growth and pigment content of Gracilaria tikvahiae (McLachlan 1979) under fluorescent and LED lighting.  Aquaculture, vol. 436, p. 52-57.

Kim, J.K., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C. 2014.  Field scale evaluation of seaweed aquaculture as a nutrient bioextraction strategy in Long Island Sound and the Bronx River Estuary. Aquaculture, vol. 433, p. 148-156.

Kraemer, G.P, Kim, J.K., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C. 2014. Seaweed aquaculture:  Bioextraction of nutrients to reduce eutrophication.  Association of Massachusetts Wetlands Scientists Newsletter, no. 89, p. 16-17

Kim, J.K., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C. 2013.  Effects of emersion on nitrogen release and physiological function in the intertidal genus Porphyra.  PLOS ONE, vol. 8, e69961.

Kim, J.K., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C. 2013.  Metabolic plasticity of nitrogen assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing.  J. Ocean Univ. China, vol. 11, p. 1-10.

Payne, A., Kraemer, G.P. 2013. Morphometry and claw strength of the non-native Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus.  Northeastern Naturalist, vol. 20, p. 478-492.

Haska, C., Blaschik, N., Kraemer, G., Lin, S., Yarish, C., and Whitlatch, R. 2012.  Assessing bait worm packaging as a potential vector of invasive species into Long Island Sound, USA.  Biological Invasions, vol. 14, p, 481-493.

Kim, J.K., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C., 2009. A comparison of growth and nitrate uptake by New England Porphyra species from different tidal elevations in relation to desiccation.  Phycological Research, vol. 57, p. 152-157.

Kim, J.K., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C. 2008.  Physiological activity of Porphyra in relation to eulittoral zonation.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 365, p. 75-85.

Pedersen, A., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish. C. 2008. Seaweeds of the littoral zone in Long Island Sound:  annual variation and impact of environmental factors.  Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 20, p. 419-432.

Pereira, R., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C, Sousa-Pinto, I. 2008. Nitrogen uptake by gametophytes of Porphyra dioica (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) under controlled culture conditions.  European Journal of Phycology, vol. 43(1), p. 107-118.

Kraemer, G.P., Gordon, A., Sellberg, M., Main, J.  2007.  Eight-year record of Hemigrapsus sanguineus invasion: population dynamics of the invader, resident crabs, and Littorina littorea in Western Long Island Sound Estuary.  Northeastern Naturalist, vol. 14, p. 207-224.

Kim, J.K., Kraemer, G.P., Neefus, C.D., Chung, I.K., Yarish, C. 2007.  Effects of temperature and ammonium on growth, pigment production and nitrogen uptake by four species of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) native to the New England coast.  Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 19(5), p. 431-440.

Carmona, R., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C. 2006.  Exploring Northeast American and Asian species of Porphyra for use in an integrated finfish-algal aquaculture system. Aquaculture, vol. 252, p. 54-65.

Kraemer, G.P. Carmona, R., Chopin, T., Neefus, C., Tang, X., Yarish, C. 2005.  Evaluation of the bioremediatory potential of several species of the red alga Porphyra using short-term measurements of nitrogen uptake.  Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 16, p. 489-497.

Pedersen, A., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish. C. 2004. The effects of temperature and nitrogen on nutrient uptake in different species of Porphyra from Long Island Sound (USA).  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, vol. 312, p. 235-252.

Invers, O., Kraemer, G.P., Pérez, M., Romero, J. 2004. Effects of nitrogen addition on nitrogen metabolism and carbon reserves in the temperate seagrass Posidonia oceanica.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, vol. 303, p. 97-114.

Kraemer, G.P., Carmona, R., Neefus, C., Chopin, T., Miller, S., Yarish, C. 2004.  Preliminary comparison of the bioremediation and mariculture potential of Northeast U.S. and Asian species of Porphyra.  Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Agency of Japan Suppl. No. 1, 77-82.

Neori, A., Chopin, T., Troell, M., Buschmann, A.H., Kraemer, G.P., Halling, C., Shpigel, M., Yarish, C. 2004. Integrated aquaculture: rationale, evolution, and state of the art emphasizing seaweed biofiltration in modern mariculture.  Aquaculture, vol. 231, p. 361-391.

Chung, I.K., Kang, Y.H., Yarish, C., Kraemer, G.P., Lee, J.A. 2002.  Application of seaweed cultivation to the bioremediation of nutrient-rich effluent.  Algae, vol. 17(3), p. 1-10.

Chopin, T., Buschmann, A.H., Halling, C., Troell, M., Kautsky, N., Neori, A., Kraemer, G.P., Zertuche-González, J.A., Yarish, C., Neefus, C. 2001.  Integrating seaweeds into marine aquaculture systems: a key towards sustainability.  Journal of Phycology, vol. 37, p. 975-986.

Kraemer, G.P., Hanisak, M.D. 2000. Physiological and growth responses of Thalassia testudinum to environmentally-relevant periods of low irradiance.  Aquatic Botany, vol. 67(4), p. 287-300.

Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C. 1999.  A preliminary comparison of the mariculture potential of Porphyra purpurea and Porphyra umbilicalis.  Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 11(5), p. 473-477.

Kraemer, G.P., Mazzella, L. 1999.  Nitrogen acquisition, storage, and use by the Mediterranean seagrasses Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera noltii.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 183, p. 95-103.

Kraemer, G.P., Chamberlain, R.H., Doering, P.H., Steinman, A.D., Hanisak, M.D. 1999. Physiological Responses of Transplants of the freshwater angiosperm Vallisneria americana Along a Salinity Gradient In the Caloosahatchee Estuary (SW Florida).  Estuaries, vol. 22, p. 138-148.

Kraemer, G.P., Kohrs, D., Alberte, R.S. 1998.  Developmental changes of sucrose synthase activity and abundance in root and leaf tissues of Zostera marina.  Aquatic Botany, vol. 62, p. 189-198.

Kraemer, G.P., Mazzella, L., Alberte, R.S. 1997.  Nitrogen assimilation and partitioning in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica.  Marine Ecology, vol. 18, p. 175-188.

Kraemer, G.P., Mazzella, L. 1996.  Nitrogen assimilation and growth dynamics of the Mediterranean seagrasses Posidonia oceanica, Cymodocea nodosa, and Zostera noltii.  in: Seagrass Biology: Proceedings of an International Workshop (Kuo, J., R.C. Phillips, D.I. Walker and H. Kirkman, eds.).  pp. 181-190.

Kraemer, G.P., Alberte, R.S. 1995. Impact of daily photosynthetic period on protein synthesis and carbohydrate stores in Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) roots:  implications for survival in light-limited environments.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, vol. 185, p. 191-202.

Hackney, J., Kraemer, G.P., Atalla, R., Vanderhart, D., Chapman, D.J. 1994.  Influence of hydrodynamic environment on composition and macromolecular organization of structural polysaccharides in Egregia menziesii cell walls.  Planta, vol. 192, p.: 461-472.

Kraemer, G.P., Alberte, R.S. 1993. Age-related patterns in metabolism and biomass of the subterranean tissues of Zostera marina (L.) (eelgrass).  Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 95,  p. 193-203.

Kraemer, G.P., Chapman, D.J. 1991.  Effects of tensile force and nutrient availability on carbon uptake and cell wall synthesis in blades of juvenile Egregia menziesii (Turn.) Aresch. (Phaeophyta). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, vol. 149, p. 267-78.

Kraemer, G.P., Chapman, D.J. 1991.  Biomechanics and alginic acid composition during hydrodynamic adaptation by Egregia menziesii (Phaeophyta) juveniles.  Journal of Phycology, vol. 27, p. 47-53.

Kraemer, G.P. 1990.  Influence of desiccation on the mechanical properties of Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta).  Journal of Phycology, vol. 26, p. 586-588.

Denny, M., Brown, V., Carrington, E., Kraemer, G.P., Miller, A. 1989. Fracture mechanics in intertidal macroalgae: survival “strategies.” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, vol. 127, p. 211-228.

Gellenbeck, K., Kraemer, G.P., McMurtry, L., Chapman, D.J. 1987.  An experimental culture system for macroalgae and other aquatic plants and animals.  Aquaculture, Vol. 87, pp. 385-91.

Bright, T.J., Kraemer, G.P., Minnery, G.A., Viada, S.T. 1984.  Hermatypes of the Flower Garden Banks, Northwestern Gulf of Mexico:  A comparison to other Western Atlantic reefs.  Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol. 34, pp. 461-476.

Kraemer, G.P. 1981.  Coral and coralline algal population levels at the East and West Flower Garden Banks.  In:  Bright, T.J., R. Rezak, and McGrail, D (eds.), Studies at the Flower Garden Banks and Selected Northwestern Gulf of Mexico Banks.  Final Report to U.S. Dept. Interior, Bureau of Land Management.  Contract No. AA851-CTO-25.  pp. 23-42.